Ffaith yr Wythnos: Mesur cyflymder

Mesurwyd cyflymder y llongau drwy daflu rhaff a oedd wedi ei glymu wrth astell. Roedd gan y rhaff glymau ynddi bob 50 troedfedd. Byddai awrwydr 30 eiliad yn cael ei droi drosodd, a byddai’r astell yn cael ei fwrw i’r môr. Wrth i’r rhaff ganlyn yr astell i’r môr, byddai’r morwyr yn cyfri nifer y clymau a fyddai wedi mynd heibio cyn i’r 30 eiliad yr awrwydr ddod i ben. Byddai hyn yn dweud wrthynt beth oedd eu cyflymder mewn notiau. 5 not = 5.8 milltir yr awr.
Er mwyn mesur dyfnder y dŵr yr oedd y llong yn hwylio ynddo, byddent yn taflu llinyn gyda phwysyn ar ei diwedd hyd nes y byddai’r llinyn yn dod yn rhydd.

 

Gyda diolch i Amgueddfa Ceredigion am y wybodaeth / With thanks to Ceredigion Museum for the information

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Fact of the week: What work did sailors do aboard the ship?

Raise the anchor. Ships are moored to the sea bed by lowering the anchor so that it hooks into the mud at the bottom of the sea. The anchor is raised by winching it up with a rope or chain around the capstan.
The crew took turns to sail the ship, usually in four-hour shifts. A bell was rung each half hour.

Steering the boat with the tiller or wheel would depend on your knowledge of the coast and the location of the rocks. Without the aid of local knowledge a sailor would rely on his skill of reading charts. They studied their charts in order to avoid rocks.

Managing the sails by shortening or ‘trimming’ depended on the strength and direction of the wind. With larger ships this sometimes meant climbing and walking along the rigging to gather the sails by hand, which was extremely dangerous.
Mending sails and ropes were skills that were needed after rough weather. Salt water and high winds were the cause of most damage Damaged equipment would be repaired in calm weather on the deck.
Swabbing or wetting the decks to prevent the wood from drying out and shrinking was a regular part of the work.

 

Gyda diolch i Amgueddfa Ceredigion am y wybodaeth / With thanks to Ceredigion Museum for the information

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Ffaith yr Wythnos: Pa waith oedd morwyr yn ei wneud ar fwrdd y llong?

Codi angor. Caiff llongau eu hangori i wely’r môr drwy ostwng yr angor i’r mwd ar wely’r môr. Codir yr angor gyda winsh a rhaff neu gadwyn o amgylch y capstan.
Roedd y criw yn cymryd eu tro i hwylio’r llong, fel arfer mewn sifftiau pedair awr. Byddai cloch yn canu bob hanner awr.

Byddai llywio’r cwch gyda’r llyw neu’r olwyn yn dibynnu ar eich gwybodaeth o’r arfordir a lleoliad y creigiau. Os na fyddai ganddo wybodaeth leol, byddai’r morwr yn dibynnu ar ei sgiliau darllen siartiau. Byddai’n astudio eu siartiau er mwyn osgoi’r creigiau.

Byddai rheoli’r hwyliau drwy fyrhau neu ‘drimio’ yn ddibynnol ar gryfder a chyfeiriad y gwynt. Ar longau mwy o faint golyga hyn ddringo a cherdded ar hyd y rigiau i gasglu’r hwyliau â llaw a oedd yn hynod o beryglus.

Byddai sgiliau trwsio hwyliau a rhaffau yn angenrheidiol ar ôl tywydd garw. Dŵr halen a gwyntoedd mawr oedd yn achosi’r difrod mwyaf. Byddai offer a ddifrodwyd yn cael ei atgyweirio yn ystod tywydd llonydd ar fwrdd y llong.

Roedd glanhau neu wlychu byrddau’r llong er mwyn atal y pren rhag sychu a chrebachu yn rhan reolaidd o’r gwaith.

 

Gyda diolch i Amgueddfa Ceredigion am y wybodaeth / With thanks to Ceredigion Museum for the information

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Fact of the week: Rations

Records that survive from a voyage undertaken in 1885-6 record show that each seaman was allowed the following each day:
Water: 3 quarts (2.8 litres)
Bread: 1 lb (0.45 kilos)
Tea: 1/8 oz (3.5 grams)
Coffee: ½ oz (14 grams)
Sugar: 2 oz (56 grams)
The meat ration would alternate between 1½ lbs (0.68 kilos) of beef and 1¼ lbs (0.56 kilos) of pork. On those occasions where peas were not part of the meal then ½ lb (0.22 kilos) of flour per person was allowed.
Lime and lemon juice were issued daily to all crew members to reduce the risk of scurvy.

 

Gyda diolch i Amgueddfa Ceredigion am y wybodaeth / With thanks to Ceredigion Museum for the information

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Ffaith yr wythnos: Dognau

Mae cofnodion sydd wedi goroesi o fordaith yn 1885-6 yn dangos bod hawl gan bob un o’r morwyr gael y canlynol bob dydd:
Dŵr: 3 chwart (2.8 litr)
Bara: 1 pwys (0.45 cilo)
Te: 1/8 oz (3.5 gram)
Coffi: ½ owns (14 gram)
Siwgr: 2 owns (56 gram)
Byddai’r dogn cig yn amrywio rhwng 1½ pwys (0.68 cilo) o gig eidion a 1¼ pwys (0.56 cilo) o borc. Ar yr achlysuron hynny pan nad oedd pys yn rhan o’r pryd, caniatawyd ½ pwys (0.22 cilo) o flawd i bob person.
Byddai pob aelod o’r criw yn cael sudd leim a lemwn er mwyn lleihau’r perygl o’r clefri poeth.

 

Gyda diolch i Amgueddfa Ceredigion am y wybodaeth / With thanks to Ceredigion Museum for the information

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Fact of the week – Life on board a sailing ship

Daily life on board ship was a constant battle with work.

If you were not helping to sail and maintain the ship you would be eating, drinking and sleeping: there was little time or space to do anything else. Sometimes, when there was no wind, sailing ships were unable to move, so the sailors could spend the time making presents for their loved ones, such as pin cushions, mats, ornaments and models.

Food

Food would consist of salted meat and fish, supplemented with whatever you could catch in the sea. Fresh fruit (other than citrus fruits) and vegetable were rare. Dry bread and fresh water would be taken on board at the start of a journey. You can imagine what the water tasted like after a few weeks in a barrel. Rats and maggots often got to the food before the sailors did!

Toilets

The ships toilet was called the ‘heads’. It would be located at the bow or the very front of the ship which would be constantly washed by the waves. The other alternative would be simply to go over the side.

Rest

With little space to spare many sailors would sleep in a hammock. The hammock would rock gently with the ship and allow the sailor to remain safe.

 

Gyda diolch i Amgueddfa Ceredigion am y wybodaeth / With thanks to Ceredigion Museum for the information

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